Table of Contents

Preface; Chapter 1; Zika Virus: Basics About the Disease(; Introduction; Transmission; Symptoms; Diagnosis and Treatment; Preventing Transmission; End Notes; Chapter 2; Zika Virus in Latin America and the Caribbean: U.S. Policy Considerations*; Summary; Introduction; Background; Aedes-Related Outbreaks in Latin America and the Caribbean; Zika in Latin America and the Caribbean; Zika: From Latin America to the United States and U.S. Territories; International Zika Responses in Latin America and the Caribbean; Country Efforts; Brazil33; Colombia; Multilateral Organizations Chapter 3Zika Response Funding: Request and Congressional Action(; Summary; Introduction; Administration Actions; Congressional Actions; The Emergency Supplemental Appropriations; Request for Zika Response Efforts; Health and Human Services; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund (PHSSEF); National Institutes of Health (NIH); Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Medicaid Funding for Territories12; Retroactive Reimbursement; Transfer Authority; Expanded Definition of "Security Countermeasure"; International Assistance Programs Department of StateUSAID; Use of Ebola Balances for Other Infectious Diseases; Transfer Authority; Notwithstanding Authority; Direct Hiring Authority/Personal Services Contractors; HHS, State/USAID, and DOD Unobligated Ebola; Response Funds; End Notes; Chapter 4; Emerging Infectious Diseases: Preliminary Observations on the Zika Virus Outbreak*; Why GAO Did This Study; What GAO Recommends; What GAO Found; Background; U.S. Role in Global Disease Surveillance; The Epidemiology and Transmission of the Zika Virus are Not Fully Understood and Accurate Information on the Incidence is Lacking Several Countries Have Reported Outbreak of Zika Virus DiseaseA Number of U.S. Travelers Have Been Infected with the Zika Virus; Questions Remain about the Transmission of the Zika Virus; Questions Remain Regarding the Link between Zika Virus Infection and Neurological and Auto-Immune Disorders; Mild Symptoms and Asymptomatic Cases May Lead to Underestimation; Lack of Consistent International Case Definitions May Lead to Inaccurate Count; Lack of a Case Definition of Microcephaly May Complicate Linkage with Zika Virus Disease WHO and PAHOWorld Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; U.S. Government; Supplemental Request; Reprogrammed Funds for USAID and CDC Programs; Congressional Action on the Budget Request62; Issues to Consider; Balancing Support for Multilateral and Bilateral Zika Responses; Health as a Component of USAID Development Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean68; U.S. Global Health Support in Latin America; Pandemic Preparedness; Research and Development for Neglected Diseases; Possible Future Actions; Appendix A. Supporting Documentation; Appendix B. Online Resources on Zika Virus; End Notes