Table of Contents

Preface: a gap to fill.
A paradigm shift in warfare.
Intrastate conflict: the new security challenge.
A new paradigm of war: generations in warfare and wars amongst the people.
Roots of the paradigm shift: social, political, and economic developments.
The cases.
Rhodesia, 1962-1980: tactical success, operational, strategic, and political failure.
Punjab, 1980-1994: a counterinsurgency model for europe.
Kosovo, 1996-1999: a spectacular success of asymmetric warfare.
France, 2005: the first act of a religious and ethnic insurgency.
Preparing for future conflict.
The nature of the challenge: general characteristics of asymmetric conflicts.
Hungary, 2012 and after: preparations to meet the challenge.
Conclusion: the price of failure. Since the end of World War II a paradigm shift has occurred in armed conflict. Asymmetric, or fourth-generation warfareùthe challenge of nonstate belligerents to the authority and power of the stateùhas become the dominant form of conflict, while interstate conventional war has become an increasingly irrelevant instrument of statecraft. In asymmetric conflicts the enemy is often a fellow citizen with a different vision for the future of the countryùwaging war among the people, maneuvering on the borderlines between parliamentary politics, street politics, criminal activity, and combat operatio.