Table of Contents

Appendixes.
A review of methodology in studies of visual functions during VDT tasks / John O. Merritt.
Review of a preliminary report on a cross-sectional survey of VDT users at the Baltimore Sun / R. Van Harrison.
Dissent / Lawrence W. Stark. Summary of findings.
Introduction.
Field studies of VDT workers and workstations.
Equipment and workstation design.
The concept and study of "visual fatigue".
Job design and psychosocial stress.
Design, practice, and standards.
Research needs.
Critique of survey methodology.
Introduction.
Surveys of VDT users.
Research design considerations.
Radiation emissions and their effects.
Types and levels of radiation emitted by VDTs.
Biological effects of radiation.
VDT use and cataracts.
Display characteristics.
Effects of CRT display variables.
Display measurement: techniques and problems.
Flat-panel displays.
Filters for VDTs.
Lighting and reflections.
Illumination.
Review of VDT studies.
Anthropometry and biomechanics in VDT applications.
Postural strain.
Overview of biomechanical factors.
Workstation design.
Visual tasks, functions, and symptoms.
Visual issues in VDT studies.
Oculomotor factors affecting visual performance.
Summary and conclusion.
Job design and organizational variables.
Introduction.
A framework for studying psychosocial stressors in VDT work.
Stressors for study in VDT work.
Discussion and conclusions.
Design, practice, and standards for VDT equipment and work.
Principles of good design and practice.
Standards and guidelines for VDT design.
Research needs.
Effects of displays on visual activity.
Psychosocial stressors. Along with the widespread use of computers have come growing fears that working in front of video display terminals (VDTs) can irritate and even damage the eyes. Separating scientific fact from popular opinion, this report takes a critical look at the link between VDT use and eye discomfort and disease as well as at changes in visual performance and oculomotor function. Drawing on information from ergonomics, illuminating engineering, and industrial and organizational psychology, the report gives practical advice on optimal workstation design to improve the comfort, performance, and job satisfaction of VDT users.