Table of Contents

Introduction.
The period 1900-1919.
The period 1919-1945.
The period 1945-1990.
Professional fields.
The institutionalization of professional practice.
The present day.
Beyond 2000. This book provides a historical survey of the unfolding of translation and interpreting (language mediation) in the 20th century with special reference to the German-speaking area. It is based first, on extensive archive research in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, second, on a large number of interviews with experts in the field of language mediation, and third, on the author's observations and experiences in the field of translation practice, translation teaching, and translation studies between 1950-1995. A specific feature of the book is the description of the social role of the language.