Table of Contents

1. Introduction to risk management.
1.1. Risk, hazard and exposure.
1.2. Risk management.
1.3. Sun exposure and risk.
1.4. A risk management approach to sun protection. 2. The origin and beneficial effects of solar UV radiation.
2.1. The nature of optical radiation.
2.2. The Sun.
2.3. The positive effects of solar UV radiation exposure 3. Factors that influence the quality and quantity of terrestrial solar UV radiation.
3.1. The atmosphere.
3.2. Quantities and units.
3.3. Factors affecting the spectral irradiance of terrestrial UV radiation.
3.4. Measuring solar UV radiation.
3.5. Ultraviolet climatology.
3.6. Reference solar UV spectrum.
3.7. Simulated sources of sunlight.
3.8. Modelling solar UV radiation.
3.9. Ozone depletion and its impacts on solar UV radiation. 4. Deleterious effects of solar UV radiation exposure on the skin.
4.1. Pathways to harm from solar UV exposure.
4.2. Erythema.
4.3. Photosensitivity.
4.4. Skin cancer.
4.5. Photoageing.
4.6. UV effects on the eyes. 5. The impact of time and space in moderating human exposure to solar UV radiation.
5.1. Behavioural influences on exposure to solar UV radiation.
5.2. Attitudes to sun exposure.
5.3. Trends in sun exposure.
5.4. Modelling human exposure to solar UV radiation.
5.5. Strategies for controlling human exposure to solar UV radiation. 6. Physical barriers to protect humans from solar UV radiation exposure.
6.1. Shade.
6.2. Clothing.
6.3. Hats.
6.4. The changing fashion for summer clothing.
6.5. Sun protection accessories.
6.6. Estimation of body surface area covered by clothing.
6.7. Optical filters.
6.8. Sunglasses.
6.9. Combining protection modalities. 7. Sunscreens.
7.1. The nature of topical sunscreens.
7.2. Sunscreen use.
7.3. The sun protection factor.
7.4. In vitro assessment of protection factors.
7.5. What wavelengths should sunscreens protect against?.
7.6. Broad-spectrum protection.
7.7. The sunscreen-sunburn paradox.
7.8. SPFs in natural sunlight.
7.9. Compliance.
7.10. Impact of sunscreen SPF on the likelihood of sunburn.
7.11. Safety of sunscreens.
7.12. Shelf life of sunscreens.
7.13. Do sunscreens prevent skin cancer?.
7.14. The population impact of sunscreen use on skin cancer incidence.
7.15. Sunscreens and solar infrared radiation.
7.16. Sunscreens and vitamin D.
7.17. A strategy for sunscreen use. 8. Counteract the damage resulting from solar UV radiation exposure.
8.1. Photoadaptation.
8.2. Melanogenesis.
8.3. Epidermal hyperplasia.
8.4. Damage repair.
8.5. Chemoprevention. 9. Treating the damage caused by solar UV radiation exposure.
9.1. Treating sunburn.
9.2. Treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.
9.3. Treatment of malignant melanoma.
9.4. Treatment of photoaged skin. Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.