Table of Contents

Introduction : Why hair is political.
The beauty industry is ours : developing African American consumer citizenship in the 1920s and 1930s --Everyone admires the woman who has beautiful hair : mediating African American neauty standards in the 1920s and 1930s.
An export market at home : expanding African American consumer culture in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s.
Beauty services offered from head to toe : promoting beauty to African American women in the 1940s and 1950s.
All hair is good hair : integrating beauty in the 1950s and 1960s.
Black is beautiful : redefining Beauty in the 1960s and 1970s.
Conclusion : why African American beauty culture is still contested. Examines twentieth-century commercial beauty culture in terms of race and gender. This work demonstrates that while black women's beauty culture often mirrored that of white women in important ways, it remained distinctive because it explicitly articulated racial politics in the United States.