Table of Contents

Introduction / Gero Erdmann and Marianne Kneuer.
Decline of Democracy: Loss of Quality, Hybridisation and Breakdown of Democracy / Gero Erdmann.
Quality Criteria for Democracy. Why Responsiveness is not the Key / Hans-Joachim Lauth.
Is the international environment becoming less benign for democratisation? / Peter Burnell.
The United States of America - a Deficient Democracy / Josef Braml and Hans-Joachim Lauth.
Deficits in Democratic Quality? The Effects of Party-System Institutionalisation on the Quality of Democracy in Central Eastern Europe / Marianne Kneuer.
Do Party Systems Make Democracy Work? A Comparative Test of Partysystem Characteristics and Democratization in Francophone Africa / Matthias Basedau and Alexander Stroh.
Elections, Democratic Regression and Transitions to Autocracy: Lessons from Russia and Venezuela / Rolf Frankenberger and Patricia Graf.
Wilted Roses and Tulips: The Regression of Democratic Rule in Kyrgyzstan and Georgia / Christoph H. Stefes and Jennifer Sehring.
Democratic Survival or Autocratic Revival in Interwar Europe. A Comparative Examination of Structural Explanations / Svend-Erik Skaaning. Democratization since the implosion of the communist bloc displays a mixed balance. While the neo-democracies in Central Eastern European Countries can be seen as largely consolidated, many other processes of democratization in other parts of the world such as Africa, Asia and Latin America got stuck as unconsolidated or became defective democracies, some 'regressed' into hybrid regimes or were even turned into autocracies. While transitology dealt with the transition from authoritarian rule, the reverse process, the transition from democratic rule, remained almost completely outside the scholarly attention. This special issue will address the problems of the regression of democracy and aims at closing the gap between research on democracy and democratization on one side and the emergence of authoritarian regimes on the other. The contributions of this volume analyse the different phenomena in which decline of democracy fans out: the loss of quality, which means a silent regression; the backslide into hybrid regimes (hybridization); and the breakdown of democracy.