Table of Contents

4 TINNITUS.
Background.
Issues in Studying Tinnitus.
Occurrence of Tinnitus.
Tinnitus and Noise Exposure.
Tinnitus and Hearing Loss.
Other Risk Factors.
Tinnitus and U.S. Military Personnel.
References.
5 RESPONDING TO NOISE RISKS: HEARING CONSERVATION PROGRAMS IN.
THE MILITARY.
Hearing Conservation Programs.
History of Military Hearing Conservation Programs.
Assessing the Adequacy of Hearing Conservation Programs.
Assessing the Adequacy of Hearing Conservation Programs in the Military.
References.
6 REPORTS OF AUDIOMETRIC TESTING IN SERVICE MEDICAL RECORDS OF.
MILITARY VETERANS.
Study Methods.
Results.
Compliance with Regulations.
References.
7 CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTS.
APPENDIXES.
A Legislative Language from Public Law 107-330.
B Agendas for Information-Gathering Meetings.
C Definitions.
D Summary Tables on Epidemiological Studies.
E Results from Alternative Analyses of Data on Reports of Audiometric Testing in Service Medical Records.
F Selected Sources of Information on Sound Pressure Levels Measured in and Around.
Military Systems and Equipment.
G Department of Defense Hearing Conservation Report Forms.
H Biographical Sketches of Committee Members. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM AND INTRODUCTION.
Charge to the Committee.
Acoustics and Noise.
The Measurement of Hearing and Tinnitus.
Studying the Effects of Noise on Hearing and Tinnitus.
Approaches to Hearing Conservation.
Evaluating the Strength of Evidence.
The Committee's Report.
References.
2 NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.
Mechanisms and Models of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.
Time Relation between Exposure to Noise and the Development of Hearing Loss and Cochlear Damage.
Risk Factors for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Individual Differences and Nonacoustic.
Factors.
Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.
References.
3 NOISE AND NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS IN THE MILITARY.
Noise in the Military Environment.
Evidence Regarding the Effects of Noise on Hearing Among U.S. Military Personnel.
Evidence Based on Average Hearing Thresholds.
Evidence Based on Variations in Hearing Thresholds Within Groups.
Epidemiological Studies of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Individuals with Prior.
Military Service.
Findings.
References. People serving in the military will, at some point, be exposed to high-intensity noise of various types. Some may develop hearing loss, especially for high-frequency sounds, or tinnitus ("ringing in the ears"), or both, as a result of their noise exposure. Hearing loss or tinnitus incurred or aggravated during military service may qualify verterans for services and financial compensation from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Since World War II, the human and financial cost associated with hearing loss among military veterans have repeatedly drawn attention to noise, hearing loss, and the need for hearing conservation in military settings.