Table of Contents

Abstract.
1. Introduction. 2. Need for glucose sensing. 3. Signal generation and detection of glucose.
3.1 Electrochemical methods.
3.1.1 Direct (non-enzymatic) oxidation or reduction of glucose at an electrode.
3.1.2 Indirect oxidation or reduction of glucose at an electrode.
3.1.2.1 First-generation sensors.
3.1.2.2 Second-generation sensors.
3.1.2.3 Third-generation sensors.
3.2 Optical methods.
3.2.1 Direct spectroscopic methods.
3.2.2 Indirect spectroscopic methods.
3.2.3 Glucose-specific affinity-based methods. 4. Nano-materials generating or enhancing glucose measuring signal.
4.1 Non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensing.
4.2 Non-enzymatic optical glucose sensing.
4.3 Indirect enzymatic glucose sensing.
4.3.1 Measuring O2 depletion.
4.3.2 Measuring H2O2 production.
4.3.3 Measuring pH changes.
4.3.4 Enzymatic optical glucose sensing.
4.4 Direct enzymatic glucose sensing.
4.4.1 Diffusionally mediated amperometric biosensors.
4.4.2 Electrical wiring of enzyme's redox centres to the electrode. 5. Smart membranes for glucose sensing.
5.1 Membranes to entrap or immobilize enzyme or affinity molecules.
5.2 Membranes for diminishing interferents.
5.3 Widening the dynamic (linear) measuring range.
5.4 Strategies to reliably extend the in vivo clinical life of implantable glucose biosensors. 6. Summary and future direction. The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as for food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this monograph reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes management.