Table of Contents

Contents; Dedication to Kevin Engle; Contributors; Preface; Acknowledgments; DVD; Figures; Tables; Abbreviations and acronyms; 1 Setting, history, and impact of volcanic eruptions in the North Pacific region; 1.1 INTRODUCTION; 1.2 VOLCANOLOGICAL SETTING OF THE NORTH PACIFIC; 1.2.1 Active volcanoes of the North Pacific region; 1.3 HISTORY OF USE OF REMOTE SENSING FOR VOLCANO STUDIES AND MONITORING; 1.4 IMPACT OF NORTH PACIFIC ERUPTIONS ON SOCIETY; 1.5 THE NEW PERSPECTIVE ON MONITORING VOLCANOES; 1.6 CONCLUSIONS; 1.7 REFERENCES; 2 Satellite systems and interactions 2.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND2.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM; 2.2.1 Overview, nomenclature, and mathematical framework (see Table 2.1); 2.3 INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING; 2.3.1 Inverse problems; 2.3.2 Modes of remote sensing; 2.3.3 Platforms and orbit types; 2.3.4 Spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution; 2.4 RADIATIVE TRANSFER AND ATMOSPHERIC WINDOWS; 2.4.1 Definitions; 2.4.2 Interaction of radiation with matter; 2.4.3 The radiative transfer equation; 2.4.4 The atmosphere; 2.4.5 Atmospheric windows; 2.5 ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION; 2.5.1 Using empirical techniques and ground truthing 2.5.2 Using radiative transfer models2.6 THE VOLCANOLOGICAL CONTEXT; 2.6.1 Overview of following chapters; 2.6.2 Past and current missions; 2.6.3 Future missions; 2.7 SUMMARY; 2.8 REFERENCES; 3 Thermal anomalies at volcanoes; 3.1 INTRODUCTION; 3.2 BACKGROUND; 3.3 THE PHYSICS OF THERMAL ANOMALIES; 3.4 VOLCANIC PROCESSES THAT PRODUCE THERMAL ANOMALIES; 3.4.1 Lava flows; 3.4.2 Lava domes; 3.4.3 Lava lakes; 3.4.4 Pyroclastic flows and block-and ash flows; 3.4.5 Debris flows; 3.4.6 Explosive activity; 3.4.7 Intrusive activity; 3.4.8 Geothermal lakes 3.5 ARE THERE (SATELLITE-BASED) THERMAL PRECURSORS TO ERUPTIONS?3.6 AUTOMATED DETECTION OF THERMAL ANOMALIES; 3.7 HIGHER LEVEL THERMAL PRODUCTS; 3.7.1 Eruption type; 3.7.2 Discharge rate; 3.8 FUTURE WORK; 3.9 REFERENCES; 4 Applications of high-resolution satellite remote sensing for northern Pacific volcanic arcs; 4.1 INTRODUCTION; 4.2 BACKGROUND; 4.3 APPLICATIONS; 4.3.1 Feature identification using VNIR data; 4.3.2 Compositional analysis using VNIR/ SWIR data; 4.3.3 Temperature analysis using TIR data; 4.3.4 Compositional analysis using TIR data; 4.3.5 Morphologic analysis using SAR data 4.3.6 Use of satellite-derived digital elevation models (DEMs)4.3.7 Data fusion; 4.4 CASE STUDY; 4.4.1 Analysis of Westdahl Volcano with multifrequency data; 4.5 SUMMARY; 4.6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS; 4.7 REFERENCES; 5 Volcanic clouds; 5.1 OVERVIEW; 5.2 DEFINITIONS; 5.3 STRUCTURE OF VOLCANIC PLUMES AND CLOUDS; 5.3.1 Plume fluid dynamics; 5.3.2 Drifting ash clouds; 5.4 COMPOSITION, SIZE, AND SHAPE; 5.5 EVOLUTION OF A VOLCANIC CLOUD; 5.5.1 Opaque clouds; 5.5.2 Semi-transparent clouds; 5.6 EFFECTS OF EMISSION PARAMETERS ON SATELLITE DETECTION; 5.7 INFLUENCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE ON VOLCANIC CLOUDS 5.8 CLOUD HEIGHT ESTIMATIONS This book provides a unique visual experience, showing satellite images of volcanic eruptions worldwide and detailed observations from the North Pacific ‘ring of fire’. Daily volcano monitoring and analysis from this region have resulted in one of the most detailed collections of satellite images in the world. An international team of experts has provided comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art techniques for real-time volcano monitoring and analysis using space-borne data, as well as satellite data acquisition and analysis, ash-dispersion models, wind field data, case studies, hazard mitigation, transmitting warnings and discussion of global impacts of eruptions. .