Table of Contents

Front Cover; Molecular Pathology of Pituitary Adenomas; Copyright Page; Contents; Preface; Introduction; Special Thanks; 1 Pituitary Tumor Classification: Functionality, Invasiveness, and Aggressiveness; Introduction; Clinical Presentation and Classification; Prolactinomas; Clinical Syndrome of Prolactinomas; GH-Producing Adenomas; Clinical Syndrome in Acromegaly; ACTH-Producing Adenomas; TSH-Producing Adenomas; Clinically Nonfunctioning Adenomas; Aggressive Pituitary Tumors; Pituitary Carcinomas; Pituitary Incidentaloma; Radiological Classification of Pituitary Adenomas; Pituitary Apoplexy. 5 ApoptosisDetection of Apoptosis; Apoptosis Versus Necrosis; Regulation and Execution of Apoptosis; Apoptosis in Human Pituitary Adenomas; Morphology of Apoptosis in the Human Pituitary; References; 6 Signal Transduction; Signaling Molecules and Pathways Involved in Pituitary Tumorigenesis: Diagnostic Tools; Receptors Involved in Pituitary Transformation; Tyrosine-Kinase Receptors; G-Protein-Coupled Receptors; GHRH and Somatostatin; Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone; Nuclear Receptors; Signal Transduction Pathways; PTTG Signaling; Protein Kinases; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. DefinitionIncidence; Clinical Manifestations; Evaluation; Management; Long-Term Outcome; Monitoring; References; 2 Immunohistochemistry and Electron Microscopy as Evaluation Criteria in Tumor Classification in the Deciphering of Pituitary Adenomas; Prolactinomas; GH-Producing Adenomas; Densely Granulated Somatotroph Adenomas; Sparsely Granulated Somatotroph Adenomas; Mixed Somatotroph-Lactotroph Adenomas; Mammosomatotroph Adenomas; Acidophil Stem Cell Adenomas; ACTH-Producing Adenomas; Thyrotrophin-Producing Adenomas; Gonadotrophin-Producing Adenomas; Null Cell Adenomas. False-Positive and -Negative Results on ImmunohistochemistryDiscordances Between Serum Biochemistry and Immunohistochemistry; Discordances Between LM and EM; References; 3 Proliferation; References; 4 Angiogenesis; Introduction; Angiogenesis and Pituitary Tumors; Histopathology; Molecular Biology--Markers of Tumor Angiogenesis; The VEGF and VEGFR Family in Tumor Angiogenesis; Fibroblast and Endothelial Growth Factors and Their Receptors; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1a; Cyclooxygenase-2; Matrix Metalloproteinases; Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene; Angiogenesis and Cancer Stem Cells; References. Protein Kinases A and CPhosphoinositol-3 Kinase/AKT; Ras; Wntß-Catenin Pathways; Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1; Transcription Factors; Cell Cycle; Cyclins; Retinoblastoma-Associated Protein; Protein 27; References; 7 Stem Cell Markers in Pituitary Adenomas; Features of Stem Cells; Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells; Candidates to Stem Cells from Anterior Pituitary: Markers of Stem Cells; Follicullostelate Cells; Follicular Cells; Marginal Cells; SP Cells; From Stem Cells to Pituitary Adenomas; Concluding Remarks; References; 8 MicroRNAs; References. The pituitary gland is an important one since it controls several of the other hormone glands such as the thyroid and adrenals. A pituitary adenoma is an abnormal growth, or tumor in this gland and they are the subject of very active clinical and pathological research. This book examines the latest developments in this field and discusses the most important molecules implicated in apoptosis, angiogenesis and signal transduction. A good understanding of these processes is needed in order to identify the best therapies. Facilitates the understanding of the processes involved and how they are t.