Table of Contents

Committee summary, responses to questions, conclusions and recommendations.
A review of the role of nutrition in immune function.
Committee responses to questions.
Committee conclusions and recommendations.
Stage setting: the military situation.
Why is the Army interested in nutrition and immune function? / Karl E. Friedl.
Physiological and immunological impact of U.S. Army Special Operations training: a model for the assessment of nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression / Ronald L. Shippee.
Immune function studies during the Ranger training course of the Norwegian Military Academy / Pal Wiik.
Introduction to immune function.
Nutrition and immune responses: what do we know? / Ranjit Kumar Chandra.
Cytokines and nutritional status: possible correlations and investigations / Jeffrey L. Rossio.
Methodological issues in assessment of human immune function / Susanna Cunningham-Rundles.
Application of whole-blood cultures to field study measurements of cellular immune functions in vitro / Tim R. Kramer.
Glutamine / Douglas W. Wilmore.
Vitamin A and immune function / Richard D. Semba.
Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and immune response: recent advances / Laura C. Rall, Simin Nikbin Meydani.
Fatty acids and immune functions / Darshan S. Kelley.
Iron metabolism, microbial virulence, and host defenses / Gerald T. Keusch.
Trace minerals, immune function, and viral evolution / Melinda A. Beck.
Health and stress.
Exercise, infection, and immunity: practical applications / David C. Nieman.
Neuroendocrine consequences of systemic inflammation / Seymour Reichlin.
Inflammatory stress and the immune system / Leonard P. Kapcala.
Chronobiology of the immune system / Erhard Haus.
Conclusions: military important issues identified in this report / William R. Beisel.
Overview of the immune system and other host defense mechanisms / William R. Beisel.
Glossary of immunological terms / William R. Beisel.
Overview of immune assessment tests.
Emerging infections, nutritional status, and immunity / presentation by Stephen S. Morse, edited by William R. Beisel. Every aspect of immune function and host defense is dependent upon a proper supply and balance of nutrients. Severe malnutrition can cause significant alteration in immune response, but even subclinical deficits may be associated with an impaired immune response, and an increased risk of infection. Infectious diseases have accounted for more off-duty days during major wars than combat wounds or nonbattle injuries. Combined stressors may reduce the normal ability of soldiers to resist pathogens, increase their susceptibility to biological warfare agents, and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines intended to protect them. There is also a concern with the inappropriate use of dietary supplements. This book, one of a series, examines the impact of various types of stressors and the role of specific dietary nutrients in maintaining immune function of military personnel in the field. It reviews the impact of compromised nutrition status on immune function; the interaction of health, exercise, and stress (both physical and psychological) in immune function; and the role of nutritional supplements and newer biotechnology methods reported to enhance immune function. The first part of the book contains the committee's workshop summary and evaluation of ongoing research by Army scientists on immune status in special forces troops, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations. The rest of the book contains papers contributed by workshop speakers, grouped under such broad topics as an introduction to what is known about immune function, the assessment of immune function, the effect of nutrition, and the relation between the many and varied stresses encountered by military personnel and their effect on health.