Table of Contents

1. The Nature of Heat and the Management of Its Temperature.
2. How Furnaces Work.
3. The Properties and Combustion of Biomass.
4. Furnace Configurations for Biomass Fuel.
5. Products Made in Antiquity in Biomass Fuelled Furnaces.
6. The Manufacture and Properties of Charcoal.
7. Combustion in Beds of Lump Charcoal.
8. Combustion Air Supply for Charcoal.
9. Furnace Configurations for Charcoal Fuel.
10. The Reduction of Metals and the Functions of Slags.
11. The Smelting of Copper.
12. The Smelting, Forging, and Properties of Iron.
13. Fuel Consumption by Pyrotechnology in Antiquity.
14. Fuel Supply and Deforestation.
15. Artifacts from the Operation of Furnaces.
App. 1. Combustion in Fuel Beds of Charcoal.
App. 2. Pressure Drop in Tuyeres and Fuel Beds and Power Required.
App. 3. Natural Draft in Fuel Beds.
App. 4. A Furnace to Reliably Make a Bloom of Iron.