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this monographis based on two courses in computational mathematics and operative research, which were given by the author in recent years to doctorate and PhD students. The text focuses on an aspect of the theory of inverse problems, which is usually referred to as identification of parameters (numbers, vectors, matrices, functions) appearing in differential– or integrodifferential– equations. The parameters of such equations are either quite unknown or partially unknown, however knowledge about these is usually essential as they describe the intrinsic properties of the material or substance under consideration.