Table of Contents

1. Introduction and scope. 2. Biosensors.
2.1 Brief history of biosensor development.
2.2 Applications of biosensors.
2.3 Biosensor architecture, an overview.
2.4 Biorecognition element.
2.5 Transducer element.
2.6 Summary. 3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
3.1 Brief history of the development of impedimetric biosensors.
3.2 An overview of impedance.
3.3 Principles of impedimetric sensing.
3.4 Presenting and analysing impedance data. 4. Fabrication of impedimetric biosensors.
4.1 Electrode design and materials.
4.2 Bioreceptor tethering to transducer surfaces. 5. Commercializing impedimetric biosensors: from laboratory to field.
5.1 Components of a point-of-care diagnostic device.
5.2 From research to point-of-care.
5.3 Sample delivery & processing.
5.4 Sensor regeneration.
5.5 Barriers to commercialisation. 6. Case studies of impedimetric biosensors for medical applications.
6.1 Whole cells and pathogenic microorganisms.
6.2 Protein and peptide biomarkers of disease.
6.3 Small molecules. 7. Conclusions and future perspectives. 8. Author biographies.
References. In this monograph, the authors discuss the current progress in the medical application of impedimetric biosensors, along with the key challenges in the field. First, a general overview of biosensor development, structure and function is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of impedimetric biosensors and the principles of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Next, the current state-of-the art in terms of the science and technology underpinning impedance-based biosensors is reviewed in detail. The layer- by-layer construction of impedimetric sensors is described, including the design of electrodes, their nano-modification, transducer surface functionalisation and the attachment of different bioreceptors. The current challenges of translating lab-based biosensor platforms into commercially-available devices that function with real patient samples at the POC are presented; this includes a consideration of systems integration, microfluidics and biosensor regeneration. The final section of this monograph describes case studies of successful impedance-based biosensors for the detection of a range of analytes from small molecules up to whole microorganisms. Finally, the authors put forward future perspectives for the clinical applications of impedimetric biosensors.