Table of Contents

Physical landscape.
Hunter-gatherer archaeological research in the lower Ohio Valley.
Peopling the valley : the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene transition.
Early Holocene foragers.
The Middle Holocene : settling into the valley.
The Late Holocene : filling the landscape.
Hunter-gatherer landscapes in space and time. By the Early Holocene (10,000 to 8,000 B.P.), small wandering bands of Archaic hunter-gatherers began to annually follow the same hunting trails, basing their temporary camps on seasonal conditions and the presence of food. The Pleistocene glaciers had receded by this time, making food more plentiful in some areas and living conditions less hazardous. Although these Archaic peoples have long been known from their primary activities as hunters and gatherers of wild food resources, recent evidence has been found that indicates they also began rudimentary cultivation sometime during the Middle Ho.