Table of Contents

Front Cover; Contents; Acknowledgments; About the Author; Abbreviations; Chapter 1 Introduction; Background; Objectives of the Guidance Note; Chapter 2 Objectives of Health Financing Policy Dialogue; Objectives; The Starting Point; Unpacking the Health Financing Challenges; Chapter 3 Macroeconomic and Fiscal Context: The Potential Government Resource Envelope for Health; Key Questions; Macroeconomic and Fiscal Constraints; Key Questions and Resources to Understand the Macroeconomic and Fiscal Context; Government Budget and Spending Priorities Measures and Resources to Understand the Budget Process and Priority-SettingKey Questions and Resources to Understand the Budget Process and Priority-Setting; Note; Chapter 4 Assessing Options for Raising Revenue for the Health Sector; Key Questions; Assessing Alternative Sources of Revenue; Earmarked Taxes and Revenue; Innovative Revenue Sources; Key Questions and Resources to Assess Options for Sources of Government Revenue for Health; Chapter 5 Opportunities for Better Aligning Health Spending with Health System Objectives; Key Questions; Opportunities to Improve Pooling Key Questions and Resources to Understand the Opportunities and Constraints to Improve PoolingOpportunities to Improve Purchasing; Key Questions and Resources to Understand the Opportunities and Constraints to Improve Purchasing; Chapter 6 Fiscal Sustainability of Current Health Spending Patterns and Potential Efficiency Gains; Key Questions; Expenditure Targets and Caps; Strategic Purchasing for Efficiency and Value for Money; Supply- and Demand-Side Controls; Key Questions and Resources to Understand the Fiscal Sustainability of Current Spending Patterns; Chapter 7 Conclusions; References Boxes 2.1 Attempts to Cost the Essential Services Package in Peru; 3.1 Revenue Collection Policies and the Government Health Budget in Ghana; 3.2 Government Spending Out of Line with Macroeconomic and Fiscal Realities in Ghana; 3.3 Countercyclical Policies and Health Expenditure; 3.4 Increasing the Discretionary Share of the Government Budget in Kenya; 3.5 Opportunities to Increase the Priority for Health in the Government Budget in Indonesia; 3.6 Fiscal Decentralization and Priority for Health in the Budget in Brazil 3.7 Fiscal Decentralization and Reprioritizing Health in the Government Budget in India and Vietnam4.1 Diversification of Revenue Sources for the Health Sector: France, Japan, and Ghana; 4.2 Unclear Combined Equity of the Revenue Sources for the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana; 4.3 New Source of Health Revenue Displaced the Government Budget in Kazakhstan; 5.1 Partial Fiscal Recentralization to Preserve Pooling of Health Funds in the Kyrgyz Republic; 5.2 Effective Cross-Subsidization with Multiple Insurance Programs in Japan and France 5.3 Integrating Multiple Insurance Schemes or Programs to Improve Pooling