Table of Contents

1. Requirements for monitoring radiation dose.
1.1. Introduction--historical perspective.
1.2. Requirements for monitoring radiation in the workplace (1999-2018).
1.3. What dose quantity is measured?.
1.4. Approval criteria for dosimetry services.
1.5. Other standards applicable to dosimetry services.
1.6. Studies of personal dosimetry for medical staff.
1.7. Summary 2. Dosemeters available.
2.1. External monitoring.
2.2. Internal monitoring.
2.3. Use of electronic monitors 3. Nuclear medicine.
3.1. Introduction.
3.2. Diagnostic nuclear medicine with [gamma]-emitting radionuclides.
3.3. 18FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.
3.4. Therapy with unsealed radionuclides.
3.5. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in optimisation 4. Dosimetry for personnel working with x-ray equipment.
4.1. Background.
4.2. Options for body dosimetry.
4.3. Assessment of eye dose.
4.4. Use of a collar dosemeter worn outside lead protection.
4.5. The double dosemeter body monitoring system.
4.6. Recommendations for dose monitoring.
4.7. The change to collar dosemeters.
4.8. Investigation levels 5. Use of x-rays in diagnostic and interventional radiology.
5.1. Introduction.
5.2. Diagnostic radiography and fluoroscopy in x-ray departments.
5.3. Interventional radiology and cardiology.
5.4. Mobile C-arm.
5.5. Training in dose optimisation 6. Radiotherapy.
6.1. Introduction.
6.2. External beam radiotherapy.
6.3. HDR/PDR brachytherapy.
6.4. Manual brachytherapy (temporary implants).
6.5. Permanent iodine seed implants.
6.6. Ophthalmic applicators.
6.7. Intraoperative radiotherapy 7. Risk assessments to predict likely personal doses.
7.1. Introduction.
7.2. Risk assessment in interventional and fluoroscopy procedures.
7.3. Risk assessments for the use of radionuclides.
7.4. Options for use in appraising personal monitoring results 8. Managing personal monitoring.
8.1. General.
8.2. Wearing and looking after the dosemeter.
8.3. Missing dosemeters.
8.4. Application of dose correction factors.
8.5. Monitoring pregnant staff.
8.6. Employees with multiple employers.
8.7. Outside workers.
8.8. Unusual dose readings.
8.9. Overexposures and notifications to HSE.
8.10. Special entries and changes to the dose record. Arrangements for personal monitoring have evolved as dose limits and practices using radiation have developed. Therefore, new approaches involving more personal dosimetry are required, and methods are needed that can be used to predict probable dose levels so that risk assessments can be prepared to determine the level of dose monitoring for individual staff members. The authors set out recommendations designed to help radiation protection practitioners and healthcare workers assess exposure levels for personnel and determine monitoring requirements based on established rules. This book is essential reading for medical physicists in radiation protection, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, as well as radiographers and technologists due to changes in global dosimetry requirements. Additionally, it presents guidelines for medical physicists and others using radiation. Part of IPEM-IOP Series in Physics and Engineering in Medicine and Biology.