Table of Contents

Editor's foreword.
List of contributors.
1 Introduction.
1.1 Key issues in food labelling.
1.2 Consumer needs.
1.3 Manufacturers' needs.
1.4 Legislators' perspectives.
1.5 An enforcement perspective.
2 Labelling requirements: European Union.
2.1 Key principles.
2.2 The organisation of EU legislation.
2.3 EU legislation and Codex standards.
2.4 The main requirements for prepacked foods.
2.5 Nutrition labelling and claims.
2.6 Specific labelling requirements in food composition Directives.
2.7 Specific labelling requirements in CAP marketing regulations.
2.8 Novel foods and genetically modified foods: labelling rules.
2.9 Future developments.
2.10 References and sources of further information.
Appendix: Comparison of Codex and UK claims criteria.
3 Labeling requirements: United States.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 The legislative and rule-making process.
3.3 The main enforcement agencies.
3.4 Regulations on product name.
3.5 Ingredients.
3.6 Responsible agent for product.
3.7 Net contents labeling.
3.8 Nutrition facts.
3.9 Country of origin.
3.10 Nutrition content claims.
3.11 Health claims.
3.12 Details of regulations by competent authorities.
3.13 Future trends.
3.14 References.
4 Declaration of ingredients and additives: European Union.
4.1 Declaring ingredients and additives: the basic principles.
4.2 Review of key legislation.
4.3 Future trends in labelling requirements for ingredients and additives.
4.4 Summary of manufacturers' responsibilities.
4.5 How it can go wrong.
4.6 References.
5 Declaration of ingredients and additives: United States.
5.1 Declaring ingredients and additives: the basic principles.
5.2 Review of key legislation.
5.3 Manufacturers' responsibilities for ingredient and additive declaration.
5.4 References.
6 Durability indication: European Union.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 The legal situation.
6.3 Manufacturers' responsibilities.
6.4 The product on its way to the consumer.
6.5 Varied application in the EU.
6.6 Special provision for short-life products: introduction.
6.7 The legal situation: use-by date.
6.8 Products with use-by date on their way to the consumer.
6.9 Varied interpretations of use-by' provisions in EU Member States.
6.10 Guidelines on how dates should be calculated and presented.
6.11 Future trends.
6.12 Sources of further information and advice.
6.13 References.
7 Durability indication: United States.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 History.
7.3 Terminology.
7.4 Conflicting purposes of durability indications.
7.5 Cost of durability indications.
7.6 Guidelines for durability indications.
7.7 Telltale indicators.
7.8 Future trends.
7.9 Summary.
7.10 Sources of further information and advice.
7.11 References.
8 Nutrition information: European Union.
8.1 Introduction: key issues in presenting nutrition information.
8.2 EU nutrition legislation.
8.3 Manufacturers' responsibilities.
8.4 Consumer expectations.
8.5 Voluntary codes.
8.6 Future trends. With the increased use of controversial techniques such as irradiation and the genetic modification of crops, food manufacturers find themselves at the center of an increasingly political debate. This is in addition to the existing complexities of producing labelling that fulfils the needs of consumer and regulator as well as the manufacturer's own technical and marketing departments. J. Ralph Blanchfield has brought together authors from around the world to provide a guide to producing labelling that complies with existing legislation and satisfies the needs of all interested parties.