Table of Contents

Bladder cancer epidemiology.
Bladder carcinogenesis and molecular pathways.
Histopathology and molecular pathology of bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer diagnosis and detection: current status.
Urine cytology, DNA ploidy and morphometry.
Molecular signatures of bladder cancer.
Economics of bladder cancer diagnosis and surveillance.
Prognostic markers for bladder cancer.
Molecular nomograms for predicting prognosis and treatment response.
Practical approaches to the management of superficial bladder cancer.
Clinical management of low grade bladder tumors.
Treatment of low-grade bladder tumors.
Intravesical chemotherapy.
Intravesical immunotherapy: BCG.
Cystectomy for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Radical surgery for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Urinary diversion.
Laparoscopic cystectomy and robotic-assisted cystectomy.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Diagnosis and treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
Chemotherapy for metastatic bladder cancer.
Nontransitional carcinoma of the bladder. Bladder cancer is a common cancer of the urinary tract. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among men and the seventh among women. Clinical management of bladder cancer is challenging because of the heterogeneity among bladder tumors with respect to invasion and metastasis, frequent occurrence of new tumors in the bladder among patients treated with bladder preservation treatments and poor prognosis of patients with tumors that invade the bladder muscle and beyond. Due to these factors it has been said that the cost per patient of bladder cancer, from diagnosis to death is t.