Table of Contents

The heart and auscultation.
Heart sound dynamics.
The first heart sound.
The second heart sound.
The third and fourth heart sounds.
Other diastolic and systolic sounds.
Murmur fundamentals.
Systolic murmurs.
Diastolic murmurs.
Continuous murmurs.
Other auscultatory sounds.
The respiratory system and auscultation.
Introduction to breath sounds.
Breath sounds heard in healthy individuals.
Abnormal breath sounds.
Bronchial breath sounds.
Abnormal voice sounds.
Absent and diminished breath sounds.
Adventitious sounds : crackles.
Adventitious sounds : wheezes.