Table of Contents

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis / David I. Bernstein.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positive vasculitis / Lanny J. Rosenwasser.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) / Paul A. Greenberger.
Immunodeficiency: innate, primary and secondary / John W. Sleasman and Jean M. Brown.
Sleep apnea.
comorbid and coexisting.
in children and the upper airway / Athanasios Kaditis.
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea / Larry Ladi and Edward S. Schulman.
COPD and irreversible airflow obstruction / Stephen P. Peters.
Bronchiectasis / Nizar Naji and Paul M OByrne.
Bronchiolitis / Theresa W. Guilbert and Kelly J. Cowan.
Genetic disorders and asthma / Neetu Talreja and Ronald Dahl.
Other pulmonary abnormalities / Robert A. Wise and Emily P. Brigham.
Pneumonia : comorbid and co-existing / Chrysanthi L. Skevaki, Athanassios Tsakris, and Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos.
Cough / Pramod Kelkar, Alan Goldsobel, and Riccardo Polosa.
Occupational asthma comorbid and differential diagnosis / Manon Labrecque, Denyse Gautrin, Ignacio Ansotegui, Roberto Castano, and Gregory Moullec.
Adult cardiac conditions / Paola Rogliani, Andrea Segreti, and Mario Cazzola.
Pediatric cardiac conditions : coexisting and differential diagnosis / Louis I. Bezold.
Pulmonary hypertension / Aaron B. Waxman and Kerri Akaya Smith.
Allergic rhinitis / Robert M. Naclerio and Ruby Pawankar.
Nonallergic rhinopathies and lower airway syndromes / James N. Baraniuk, Michael S. Blaiss, and Debendra Pattanaik.
Infectious comorbidities of asthma in the upper airway / Claus Bachert and Griet Vandeplas.
Nasal polyps : comorbid / Hae-Sim Park, Mario Sanchez-Borges, Marek Kowalski, Seung Youp Shin.
Vocal cord dysfunction and paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder / Roger W. Fox and Mark C. Glaum.
Gastroesophageal reflux / Promila Banerjee and Stephen J. Sontag.
Obesity and asthma / Erick Forno, Louis-Philippe Boulet, and Juan C. Celedón.
Endocrine disorders : comorbid and coexisting / Kyriaki Sideri and Adnan Custovic.
Osteopenia and osteoporosis : comorbidities of asthma / Joshua A. Steinberg and Andrea J. Apter.
Pregnancy comorbid and coexisting / Jennifer A. Namazy, Michael Schatz, and Sandra Gonzalez-Diaz.
Psychological factors comorbid and coexisting / Fulvio Braido, Tatiana Slavyanskaya, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Ilaria Baiardini, and Sepiashvili Revaz.
Asthma, substance abuse, and tobacco use / Riccardo Polosa and Pasquale Caponnetto.
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and asthma / Matteo Bonini, André Moreira, and Sergio Bonini.
Environmental risk factors in asthma / Tari Haahtela and Ömer Kalayci.
Age and asthma / Chelle Pope, Richard deShazo, and James King.
Atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and anaphylaxis comorbid and coexisting / Scott Sicherer, Hugh A. Sampson, Julie Wang, and Alessandro Fiocchi. Asthma sufferers number approximately 200 million worldwide, with 15-20 million of those in the United States. Multiple comorbid conditions occur with asthma, including rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, sleep apnea, vocal cord dysfunction syndrome, obesity, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Without identifying and caring for comorbid conditions, asthma cannot be treated appropriately. Comorbidity of allergic diseases emphasizes that we must understand more about why different organs in individuals express allergy and others do not.