Table of Contents

Preface; Acute Cholecystitis: A Contemporary Review; Abstract; Acute Calculous Cholecystitis; Diagnosis; Clinical Presentation; Laboratory Data; Imaging Studies; Differential Diagnosis; Treatment; Supportive Care; Pain Control; Definitive Therapy; Surgical Approach; Gallbladder Drainage; Complications; Empyema; Gangrene; Perforation; Emphysematous Cholecystitis; Acalculous Cholecystitis; Pathogenesis; Diagnosis; Imaging; Treatment; References; Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis; Abstract; Introduction; Diagnosis; Treatment; References 4.0. Clinical Findings of Acute Cholecystitis4.1. Symptoms and Clinical Signs; 4.2. Laboratory Findings; 4.3.0. Imaging Studies; 4.3.1. Ultrasound; 4.3.2. Computed Tomography; 4.3.3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging; 4.3.4. Cholescintigraphy; 5.0. Misdiagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis without Use of CRP as a Diagnostic Criterion; 6.0. The 2007 and 2013 Tokyo Guidelines for Acute Cholecystitis; 7.0. Severity Grades of Acute Cholecystitis; 7.1. Diagnostic Levels of WCC and CRP in Mild and Moderate-Severe AC; 7.1.2. Mild (Grade I) AC; 7.1.3. Moderate-Severe (Grade II-III) AC 7.2. Use of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Predicting Severity of ACConclusion; References; Biographical Sketch; Treatment for Acute Cholecystitis: Early and Delayed Cholecystectomy; Abstract; Abbreviations; Introduction; Epidemiology; Pathophysiology; Clinical Picture and Diagnosis; Treatment; Early Cholecystectomy and Delayed Cholecystectomy in the Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis; Definitions; Morbidity; Surgical Site Infection; Bleeding; Bile Duct Injury; Mortality; Days of Hospital Stay; Readmissions; Admission to Intensive Care Unit; Type Of Surgery and Conversion Rates Diagnostic Work-Up of Patients with Acute CholecystitisAbstract; 1.0. Introduction; 2.0. Pathogenesis of Acute Cholecystitis; 3.0. Morphology of Acute Cholecystitis; 3.1. Macroscopically; 3.2. Microscopically; The First Stage, Days 2 to 4: Acute Edematous Cholecystitis (Figure 3); The Second Stage, Days 3 to 5: Acute Necrotizing Cholecystitis (Figure 4); The Third Stage, Days 7 to 10: Acute Suppurative Cholecystitis (Figure 5) and Acute Gangrenous Cholecystitis (Figure 6); The Fourth Stage, beyond day 10: Pericholecystic Abscess (Figure 7) and Gallbladder Perforation (Figure 8). Duration of SurgeryReoperations; Hospital Costs and Time Off Work; Subtotal Cholecystectomy; Is Delayed Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis Indicated in Some Clinical Situations?; Key Messages; References; Tokyo Guidelines Grade II (Moderate) Acute Cholecystitis: A Management Dilemma?; Abstract; Introduction; Tokyo Guidelines; Summary; Literature Review; Management of Grade II (Moderate); Acute Cholecystitis; Drainage Procedures; Operative Intervention and Strategies; Timing of Operation; Conclusion; References; Cholecystitis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Abstract; Introduction